Remembering David Horowitz (3) Controversy over Zion comes to the UN: A Biblical Answer–Really?

For nearly two years David Horowitz exchanged correspondence with the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Abdullah Ibn al-Hussein. Central to their dialogue was the Palestine Question and the notion of whether the ancient texts of the Bible and Koran could play a role in the resolution of key issues.

In February 1947, the British, succumbing to the problems and pressures from Palestine and at home, announced they were referring the Palestine Mandate question to the United Nations. This spurred a beehive of activity at the UN. David Horowitz, sensing that the timing was right, was about to take his case directly to the big house.

UN PartianVote

As a prelude, David spent considerable time discussing and interviewing several Arab and Muslim delegates including Dr. Charles Malik of Lebanon, Dr. Fadhil Jamali of Iraq and M. Asif Ali, a Muslim delegate from India. He posed the same question to all delegates: “Do you think the Bible and the Koran could be used as the basis in solving the Palestine Problem?” Responses were mixed, however, several contended that the impasse included a deeper religious element that the ultimate solution might have to face.

Following these encouraging responses, United Israel World Union sent a letter to the Chairman of the UN’s Political and Security Committee, Lester B. Pearson, suggesting the World Organization consider using the Bible and Koran to help settle the Arab-Israeli dispute over Palestine.

On April 28, 1947, fifty-five nations of the world, representing the greater part of mankind, took seats in the New York City Building at Flushing Meadows, Long Island. They had been summoned in special session to begin deliberations over the vexing and seemingly unsolvable issue of Palestine.

In the May-June, 1947 edition of United Israel Bulletin, David Horowitz authored an article entitled: “Controversy over Zion comes to United Nations.”

In his letter to Pearson, David stated both the purpose and reason for the appeal:

“As an international Anglo-Hebrew Organization, chartered under the laws of the State of New York, we have a deep interest in the fate of Palestine. We wish, therefore, to submit the following for the consideration of the Fact-Finding Commission, which it is the duty of your committee to elect for the study of the seemingly unsolvable Palestine Question.”

David then proceeded to recommend that the Commission give serious and careful consideration to the two historic documents that constitute the life-pattern of the Jewish and Arabic peoples, namely, the Bible and the Koran. After a gentle reminder to the Commission that all other previous approaches to the solution to the problem of Palestine have failed, he stated: “We recommend that your Committee include these world-recognized documents as evidence to be considered in the study.” It seemed incumbent then upon the cousins, the Arabs and the Jews, to recognize fully what is actually inherent in the Palestine question.

The proposal included three main points: 1) that these documents are honored by both peoples and are also recognized by world courts; 2) they establish these peoples statehood status, and 3) they indicate the extent of their historic domain in the Middle East.

On June 2, 1947, United Israel World Union received a reply from the Commission. It expressed thanks for the submission and stated: “that the Committee would give the fullest consideration to every relevant opinion” and then asked the UIWU Organization to submit it’s views regarding Palestine on or before June 26.

Throughout the deliberations, the eleven-nation Special UN Committee had before it a Memorandum which was submitted by United Israel World Union and which was duly acknowledged both by the Chairman of the Special Committee and by Secretary-General Trygve Lie himself. The Memorandum gave the members of the Committee the full opportunity to know what the Bible had to say on this issue.

The four page Memorandum pointed out that legislative bodies and courts recognize the Bible to the extent of having all oaths of fealty and honor sworn by it, giving indisputable logic that this ancient document be given foremost consideration by members of the Special Committee. That its recorded history be examined in the light of genealogy and also, the rights, claims and deeds it has attributed to the peoples linked to the Holy Land, should be properly evaluated.

Carefully laid out and emphasized in the Memorandum were the facts that the Holy Koran, religiously observed by all true Moslems, never invalidated the Bible. That it upholds the Bible as the highest authority and portrays Hebrew leaders such as Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Moses, David and a host of others, as holy prophets whose utterances were accepted as inspired word. That yearly, all true Moslems honor Moses by commemorating the festival Nebi Musa and that it was this same Moses who originally set the biblical borders of the Holy Land for all the tribes of Israel as an everlasting statute.

Definitive statements from the Koran were then set forth that confirmed the Hebrew Scriptures, thus making the biblical injunctions equally as binding upon all true believers to obey.

Scriptural references were given that pertained to the issues of the biblical boundaries of Palestine, land-deeds and inheritances, as well as the covenant blessings given to Ishmael with the Arabian territory defined.

Evidence was submitted that served to prove that the original Mandate looked upon Transjordan as an integral part of Palestine proper. Article 7 of the “Convention between the United States and Britain” regarding “Rights in Palestine” was signed in London on December 3, 1924, and ratified by the President of the United States on March 2, 1925.

The case had been duly presented. The evidence carefully laid out for consideration and it was time for the closing statement.

Reading like an oracle penned from an ancient prophet, David Horowitz made his impassioned closing argument to the committee representatives of the nations:

“All of the above facts are self-explanatory and need no further comment. The picture is clear, and brave men, truthful men, God-fearing men, should know what to do in the sight of an all-seeing God who is known to all mankind from the Bible as The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, the Holy One of Israel. He it is who swore to give Palestine to Israel. For nearly two thousand years the wandering Jew has never once ceased hearing the eternal threat: Go back to Jerusalem from whence you came. The Jew has now come to the end of the road and Jerusalem too, has become forbidden ground. The cry of the ancient prophet still rings: Let My People Go!”

 Following an intensive investigation of the many-sided Palestine problem. The special U. N. Committee succeeded in completing its arduous tasks. A decision had been made. On September 1, 1947, Secretary-General Trygve Lie had the Committee’s recommendations on his desk. It was indeed recommended that Palestine be partitioned into a Jewish state and an Arab state. But not according to the ancient blueprint. The efforts of United Israel World Union had failed to influence the Pearson Committee.


On that faithful November 29, 1947, the vote on Israel’s future was held at the UN. The UN vote -33 to 13-favoring the establishment of a Hebrew State in Palestine came between 5:30 and 5:45 PM on Sabbath evening, the 16th day of Kislev, 5708.

The Zionists would accept the partition plan with some reluctance, and the Arab countries, along with the Arabs of Palestine, flatly rejected the plan, but that story will have to wait.

At UIWU’s Fifth meeting held on April 18, 1948, David reported on the results of the UN Assembly Special Committee’s decision. He stated: “As long as the UN fails to follow God’s blueprint for Palestine, it will fail to solve the problem. It will always remain in our official records that we brought to the attention of the United Nations the plan of the Bible for Palestine.”

Though David Horowitz and UIWU did not achieve the success they were hoping for, he was not deterred. He would soon embark on another campaign that would prove to be highly successful-one that would influence a sitting President and a vote for Israel’s statehood.

Bio PictureRalph Buntyn is executive vice president and associate editor of United Israel World Union. A historian and researcher, his many articles and essays have appeared in various media outlets.




This post is the third in the series “Remembering David Horowitz.” For the complete archive see here.


Restoring Abrahamic Faith Now Available

Now Available for immediate shipping…

A biblically based exposition of the ancient Hebrew faith of Abraham



This terrific little book is a “must read.” We love this book because it takes the Bible completely seriously, explores it fearlessly, following the text itself, and other sources, and explains things – including, e.g., the nature and early history of Christianity, but also many aspects of the Torah Tradition itself – directly, simply, and rigorously honestly. This is an openhearted, large-souled book, very American, in its way (in its trust in the power of logic, truth and the black-letter Scripture itself to create change), which convincingly explains why the whole human race needs to re-think the Bible and rediscover the ancient faith of Abraham.

Michael Dallen, 1stCovenant Foundation

You’ve produced a superb manifesto in this book, very similar in many ways to my own personal credo. It is truly a wonderful, inspirational book that should draw people back to the fundamental biblical message, one which puts Jesus, James and John the Baptizer into context. I have added it to my “Recommended Reading” on my Web site. I think the chapter on The Messiahs is especially well done and I’ll direct my students to the book, especially for that chapter. What constitutes a Messiah, as opposed to a Savior, remains a perennial favorite amongst my students.
I personally learned a lot from the chapter on The Plan – hadn’t thought of thinking about the future quite that way – and Turning To God is very similar to the kind of message I advocate when speaking in churches/synagogues.

Prof. Barrie Wilson, York University, Toronto

 I just finished reading an amazing book entitled Restoring Abrahamic Faith by Professor James Tabor of the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Tabor’s book is a manifesto of biblical theology deeply rooted in the text of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). The book is full of profound wisdom and penetrating observations that skillfully elucidate the meaning of numerous biblical verses. Whether or not one agrees with all of the author’s conclusions, there is much to be learned from his encyclopedic knowledge of the biblical text and archaeology. I strongly encourage anyone who has a love for God’s holy Word to read this book!

Nehemiah Gordon, Biblical scholar, Author

I have just finished Restoring Abrahamic Faith. I’m not sure that my words will convey how profoundly your book has reached me. You have put into words something that I have “felt” and understood but didn’t have words or ways to convey what I felt and understood. I was raised in the Episcopalian tradition and have attended many other main line churches in my lifetime but I have always “talked to God.” Your book has given me a new understanding of what Biblical Faith is. A new pathway has opened for me through your words and I can’t wait to see where it takes me.

Lori Bollinger
, Executive Assistant
, Trinity Episcopal Church in the City of Boston

Order your autographed copy online through Amazon here

Or Checks ($15.00 per copy plus $5.00 Priority Mail postage) payable to: Genesis 2000, 2124 Crown Centre Drive, Suite 300, Charlotte, NC 28227

Experiencing the Jesus Dynasty Tour

Jesus-Dynasty-HardcoverI just signed up to join a unique tour to Israel with my friend and teacher Dr. James Tabor. I have been to Israel with him three times previously and each time I go, I come away with a better understanding of the Bible and history. This tour is a special tour, organized to coincide with the 10th anniversary of the publication of his book, The Jesus Dynasty. The book was published by Simon & Schuster in April of 2006, became a New York Times best-seller, and has been translated into 20 languages. The book seeks to present a historically realistic view of the life of Jesus, and a bold, new interpretation of the origins of Christianity using the New Testament as well as other ancient sources.

The tour promises to emphasize “newly discovered archaeological sites that shed light on our understanding of the historical Jesus and allow us to read our gospel sources in refreshingly new ways.” While the tour is clearly a “Jesus tour,” the focus will be historical rather than theological, and therefore will appeal to a wider audience.

The dates are March 4-13, 2016. For those who are interested in the historical Jesus, you will not want to miss this one. The tour has many exciting features, not the least of which is a private evening conversation with Emmy-award winning Israeli filmmaker, Simcha Jacobovici. For information about this tour, go to James’ website and read about it and then follow the links to the itinerary and the registration form, where you can pay a deposit to secure your spot. When you pay your deposit, tell them that Ross sent you. It will make them feel better about bringing me along.

Excited about the tour, I made the following video.

Read about the tour on the popular TaborBlog!

Check out the Itinerary and Register today!

Roots of Faith

Screen Shot 2016-02-05 at 7.13.55 PM

Roots of Faith is the outreach effort of United Israel World Union directed by Ross K. Nichols, who is a senior Vice-President of UIWU.

We invite you to visit and bookmark this web site which is rich with resources and materials oriented toward our central purposes and goals for the past 73 years. Central to this outreach is the weekly live Biblical teaching by Ross Nichols every Saturday at 11:30 AM EST (10:30 AM CST) over Youtube. We invite all our readers to tune in regularly.

A Tribute to David Horowitz in the Jewish Press


Screen Shot 2016-02-03 at 4.16.00 PMHe Walked With Kings And Rulers: Remembering David Horowitz 

Posted 3/6/2003
By Vanni Cappelli

Editor`s Note: David Horowitz`s dispatches from the UN appeared
regularly in The Jewish Press for many years. Journalist Vanni
Cappelli knew him like a grandson knows a grandfather.

What everyone will always remember about him with
loving joy is his smile.

It is the exact same smile that captured the hearts of Metropolitan
Opera greats like Enrico Caruso and Geraldine Farrar when he was
an office boy at the Old Met from 1918, and is preserved in a group
photograph taken on the occasion of the legendary tenor`s last visit
to the opera house shortly before he sailed back to Italy and died in
the summer of 1921.

Horowitz UN RD

It is the exact same smile which shines forth in numerous pictures
taken over the course of almost six decades at the United Nations
which hung above his cluttered and picturesque desk. They show
him greeting and engaging with the great and the obscure, the saints
and the sinners, the statesmen and the journalists, Wiesel and
Khrushchev, Begin and Vyshinsky, Hammarskjold and Netanyahu,
Eleanor Roosevelt and U Thant.

That beautiful smile, warm and sincere,

which proceeded from a transcendent mastery of pain and loss, both
personal and that of his people, first beamed at the beginning of the
20th century. It was still going strong at the beginning of the 21st,
despite all of the intervening and continuing horrors that had
confronted it, from the First World War through the Holocaust to

Continue reading “A Tribute to David Horowitz in the Jewish Press”

Remembering David Horowitz (2): Dialogue with an Arab King

Dateline: January 17, 1945. David Horowitz was moved to write a letter to the Emir of Trans-Jordan, Abdullah Ibn al-Hussein. Copies of United Israel World Union Bulletins were sent along with references made to select articles. Also included was a copy of the UIWU Constitution which stated in part, it’s all-embracing aims and purposes: “Peace in wisdom and understanding in the love of our Creator whom all true souls should serve.”

King Abdullah

One only has to study the history of the geopolitical entity created in Palestine under the British administration. Known as the “British Mandate of Palestine” it was first carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948. The “controversy over Zion” was fast becoming the burdensome stone.

In his letter, David suggested to the Emir that the “Palestine Question” be approached on the basis of the decrees of a higher power. Horowitz stated: “Could it not be solved between brethren if we begin with the premise that Abraham was our common father and that his God was the one true God for all of us?”

The next procedure should then be to take “the words and the works of the prophets of the Bible, including the wisdom of the Koran which upholds the Bible, and base all solutions on what these works promised.”

Abdullah Ibn al-Hussein (1882-1951), along with his brothers Ali, Feisal and Zeid, had led the Arab forces of the Great Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule. Between 1916-1918, he worked with the British guerrilla leader, T. E. Lawrence (of Lawrence of Arabia fame) playing a key role as architect and planner, while leading guerrilla raids on garrisons of the Ottoman occupational forces.

Trans-Jordan was formed on April 21, 1921 when the British created a protectorate with Abdullah as Emir. Independence was gained on May 25, 1946 as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan (renamed simply as Jordan in 1949), with Abdullah as king.

To Horowitz’s surprise, within two months after sending the letter, he received a lengthy reply from the Emir, dated March 2, 1945. The original letter was written in Arabic with an English translation. The Arabic letter was signed by the Emir in red ink.

Of course, the Emir was sure to look on any Jewish person as being in favor of a Jewish State in Palestine and questioned David’s motives. He also inferred that he did not want Jews settling in Palestine and also differed on David’s proposal that the Arabs and Jews take the bible and the Koran and use it as a basis for adjudicating the Palestine question.

Thus began a nearly two-year long correspondence and dialogue between the two.

It was April and it was active with historical developments.

  • Harry S. Truman succeeded to the Presidency on April 12, when Franklin D. Roosevelt died suddenly after months of declining health. Truman became our 33rd President.
  • The second annual assembly of United Israel World Union was held at the Washington, DC home of Associate Ada M. Buxton on April 28.
  • At the same time, delegates were gathering in San Francisco to hold meetings that would lead to the founding of the United Nations.
  • On April 30, Adolf Hitler committed suicide along with Eva Braun, his long-term partner, in his bunker in Berlin.
  • V-E Day on May 8, 1945 marked the end of World War II in Europe.

On May 29th, David answered Abdullah. He began by citing detailed passages from the Koran which confirmed the validity of the Tanach (Torah) and which upheld the laws of Moses. He also pointed out that it was Moses who had first set the historic boundaries of Israel as constituting an eternal heritage of the children of Israel.

He countered the Emir’s belief that the Koran superseded the Tanach in total. He said: “the Koran, as I have noticed, does not add nor does it diminish from the laws of Moses and the prophets. On the contrary, it champions the same.” He then proceeded to offer definitive statements in the Koran confirming the Hebrew Scriptures. Therefore, it follows that the injunctions in the Bible are as binding upon the Arabs as they are upon the Jews and the Christians.

In closing, David would express: “Would not the All-Wise and Just, the One God of all, be mocked unless the definitive statements and plans which He gave in the Bible were given careful study and consideration in the light of all available facts.”

After two months without a response from Abdullah, David sent another letter to Amman dated July 30, 1945. Included was a copy of the newly published July-August 1945 edition of the UI bulletin that contained a story, written by David, on “The Palestine Problem” which appears to have been written with Emir Abdullah in mind.

Two points in the article are worth mentioning: David began by attacking the British for being two-faced and creating disillusionment among both Jews and Arabs in Palestine. The other point was to state that the “twelve tribes” constituting the whole house of Israel, must likewise fully realize that the children of Islam are their full cousins through Abraham and by virtue of their faiths which uphold Moses and the prophets, all must accept Sinai as the mountain of all mountains of truth. All stem from one source. All worship the God of Israel.

September 2, 1945. The Empire of Japan officially surrenders aboard the battleship Missouri bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.

Later that month a reply from the Emir arrived. David described the letter as being friendlier in tone. The Emir seemed to be agreeing with David that the British were playing a double game in its Palestine policy, stating that: “the politics of the matter has its tricks and snares.” After expressing more of his views, Abdullah closed by quoting Alfatha Sra 1 that God had said in the Holy Koran “Dispute ye not the People of the Book except in a friendly manner, so you are to have good action from us and more.”

David would respond with another lengthy reply on October 9, 1945, continuing the dialogue.

There would be no exchange between the two for almost a year. The Emir was up for a big promotion. He became King of an independent nation on May 25, 1946, becoming one of the first Arab leaders to adopt a system of constitutional monarchy during the newly emerging era of the contemporary Arab World.

October 1946 brought the final exchange between the two.

In his letter of October 5th, King Abdullah remarked: “Personally, I know you and your faith” and expressed his understanding that David was a man “to do according to his faith and national prestige.” He closed with the words: “Please accept my friendship.”

This was to be the last message from the King.

David sent King Abdullah a short note on October 22, saying: “that God would one day re-establish His Kingdom on earth” and “when the Prophet comes he will right all things for all mankind.” David then wished “that peace may come and that we may dwell as brethren again according to the Book.”

In 1949 Abdullah entered secret peace talks with Israel, including at least five with Moshe Dayan. News of the negotiations provoked a strong reaction from other Arab states.

On July 20, 1951, King Abdullah traveled to Jerusalem for his regular Friday King Husseinprayers along with his young grandson, Prince Hussein. A lone gunman on the steps of the Al-Aqsa Mosque assassinated the King. The conspiracy-backed execution was motivated by fears that the old king would make a separate peace with Israel. Miraculously, a bullet also meant for Hussein, deflected off a medal he was wearing given to him by his grandfather, thus sparing his life.


The young Prince Hussein would later become King Hussein I of Jordan and enter into a peace agreement with his Israeli neighbors. And David Horowitz would live to file the story.

“I’m very happy,” said David. “You know when Abdullah was assassinated by an Arab fanatic, Hussein was a 15 year old boy and saw it happen. He has his memories.”

Bio Picture

Ralph Buntyn is executive vice president and associate editor of United Israel World Union. A historian and researcher, his many articles and essays have appeared in various media outlets.




This post is the second in the series “Remembering David Horowitz.” For the complete archive see here.


Remembering David Horowitz (1): He Walked With Kings and Rulers

David HorowitzBorn in Malmo, Sweden in 1903, David and his family emigrated to the United States in 1914 during World War I, settling in Worcester, Massachusetts. He was one of eight children of Cantor Aaron and Bertha Horowitz.

As a toddler at the synagogue where David’s family worshipped in his hometown of Malmo, the rabbi once placed his hand on David’s head and proclaimed, “David, you will go before kings and rulers”.

This would literally and metaphorically prove to be the case.

David made his first visit to what was then British-occupied Palestine as a young Zionist pioneer in 1924 and remained through the end of 1927. This was to be the first of many trips to pre-independent Israel where he would work in Jerusalem while mastering Hebrew and developing an extensive knowledge of Judaism.

Horowitz Kibbutz 1926
A young David Horowitz with his characteristic smile–middle in striped jersey

It was in late 1927 when Horowitz would have a remarkable encounter with a prophetic figure, one Moses Guibbory who at the time was living in the northwest area of Jerusalem in the Sanhedria tomb area. This association changed and shaped his entire life. Horowitz details this meeting in his 1949 autobiography “Thirty-Three Candles”.

Following an intensive year working with Guibbory, Horowitz would become editor and publisher of the mammoth 2000 page compendium of biblical research based on the work of Moses Guibbory.

Following a sharp break with Guibbory in 1943, Horowitz’s life would be profoundly redirected. Out of the pangs of the past, grew a movement, a world structure, founded upon the principles of Israel’s ancient laws. It came at a time when, as Horowitz expressed, “when it appeared to me that I had been forsaken by God and man, this development vindicated my faith in the One in whom I had always placed my trust”. The movement was named United Israel World Union. It became incorporated on April 17, 1944, under the laws of the State of New York, as an educational, Mosaic Institution to function in all countries.

Another amazing development would follow the next year-1945.

Horowitz would obtain press credentials at the newly formed United Nations under the auspices of World Union Press, which was formed as an arm of United Israel World Union. He was present at the opening sessions in San Francisco and at Lake Success, NY.

Horowitz UN RD
David Horowitz at the United Nations in front of the Isaiah Pavilion

The many contributions of David Horowitz, with his decades of chronicling the official affairs of the General Assembly, the Security Council and the Secretary General’s office, would make him an authority on the world organization without parallel.

“He was the institutional memory of the United Nations” stated CNS news U. N. Bureau Chief, Serge Beaulieu.

It is this period, post 1945, and the rich history of the founding of two world organizations that will be the subject of the Horowitz saga. His role in both could only be described as providential.

Journalist Vanni Cappelli, son of David’s longtime friend and press associate, John Cappelli, wrote a moving tribute to David Horowitz following his death in 2002 in the Jewish Press, see He Walked With Kings And Rulers. Cappelli was a UN correspondent for Paese Sera, a left wing publication out of Rome, Italy who shared room 371 of the press section with Horowitz at the UN for more than 40 years, starting in 1960. I would like to quote a portion of his fitting tribute published on March 6, 2003:

 What everyone will always remember about him with loving joy is his smile. It is the exact same smile that captured the hearts of Metropolitan Opera greats like Enrico Caruso and Geraldine Farrar when he was an office boy at the Old Met from 1918, and is preserved in a group photograph taken on the occasion of the legendary tenor’s last visit to the opera house shortly before he sailed back to Italy and died in the summer of 1921.

It is the exact same smile which shines forth in numerous pictures taken over the course of almost six decades at the United Nations which hung above his cluttered and picturesque desk. They show him greeting and engaging with the great and the obscure, the saints and the sinners, the statesmen and the journalists, Wiesel and Khrushchev, Begin and Vyshinsky, Hammarskjold and Netanyahu, Eleanor Roosevelt and U Thant.

The UN is supposed to be about dialogue, and David was always ready to answer invective with its opposite-a calm reason based on passion. That is why everyone loved him, and everyone was willing to talk to him. And when you talked long enough with David Horowitz, invective became dialogue-you just couldn’t help it.

There was a simple, compelling reason for this, and it went far beyond his venerable age or his standing as the dean of UN correspondents. It was that David represented, as no one else I have ever met, the ancient ideal upon which the world organization was supposed to be founded, and which it has so often fallen short of in its troubled history-the Brotherhood of All Mankind. His own adherence to this truth was a constant reproach to the hypocrisy of the world body. Yet, incredibly, this passionate defender of the State of Israel was never anti-UN”.

John Cappelli once said “In all my 40 years and more of knowing him, not once did he ever raise his voice in anger. That was the reason that all of the other correspondents, even those from the Arab world who would refuse to attend a press conference given by an Israeli diplomat, would come to see, and talk with, David”. In later years many more would come to pay homage, Jews and Gentiles, faithful and unbelievers, advocates of freedom and supporters of tyranny”.


As if being led by a distant echo, Vanny Cappelli would fittingly entitle his tribute to Horowitz “He Walked With Kings And Rulers”.

Bio PictureRalph Buntyn is executive vice president and associate editor of United Israel World Union. A historian and researcher, his many articles and essays have appeared in various media outlets.


This post is the first in the series “Remembering David Horowitz.” For the complete archive see here.